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2010/03/22

台灣藝文運動史素材

莊金國著《台灣流動見證》序

讀完莊金國《台灣流動見證》一書的打樣,深切體會「今天的新聞,明天的歷史」這句話的涵意。這些文章都是作者擔任《新台灣》新聞周刊南部特派記者所寫的報導,偏向藝文界的資訊,這正是作者的專業領域,他本身便是一位相當資深的詩人。

這些現時現地的報導,是第一手資料,又是作者以記者的身分目擊的證言,翔實可靠。由於作者的詩學素養,在報導藝文活動時,不會只有平鋪直敘的事實陳述,還會加以適當的分析,甚至進行評論。這種夾敘夾議的書寫風格,有時更傾向評論文,而非僅僅敘事文而已。

由於作者對藝文生態瞭若指掌,與許多活躍人士熟悉,甚至多有私交。因此,報導能夠深入,還能透視所報導人物的內心世界,及其努力走過的成長歷程。這樣的知心交融,使得作者的報導文字親切動人,又能歷久彌新,不但是很好的備忘錄,查索時引人回到歷史現場。

純粹新聞報導,事件過了,不免成為明日黃花;但莊金國的藝文報導集輯成冊,讀來仍然興會淋漓,保存了寶貴的當代藝文活動資料,成為最值得珍視的史料。而這些活動為一般報紙媒體所忽視,因為不重視藝文活動,就吝於讓出一點篇幅,這是使人感到台灣報紙缺乏文化氣質的原因。

至於文學雜誌似乎只專注於發表文學作品,對活動疏於報導,或許認為活動不屬於創作領域,然而報導文學不正是散文類中的一支嗎?或許一般會把報導文學界定在以文學書寫手段報導庶民生活,可是藝文人士不正是庶民階級嗎?難道是貴族?

有趣的是,莊金國的《台灣流動見證》似乎正好夾在報紙與文學雜誌之間、報導與評論之間的真空地帶,而這個真空似乎也是文學或藝術運動史的真空。因此,《台灣流動見證》的文章起先可以當做報導閱讀,接著做為評論文字欣賞,最後就成為史料保存了。我認為這是本書出版的最大意義!

《希臘微笑》 譯序

希臘是西方文明的發源地,希臘吟遊詩人荷馬的史詩,成為西方文學的傳統,可是警句詩也是希臘的另一個傳統,大概是衍自希臘文明的愛智性格,重理性思辨,輕感性抒情吧!一部《希臘詩選》(800 BC∼1000 AD),包括 3,700首警句詩、歌謠、墓誌銘等,在 1,800 年間一脈相傳。

現代希臘詩人出了不少縱橫國際詩壇的名家,在我編譯的《歐洲經典詩選》25 冊當中,網羅了卡瓦菲(Constantine Cavafy, 1863∼1933)、塞弗里斯(George Seferis, 1900~1971)和黎佐斯(Yannis Ritsos, 1909∼1990)。還有例如 1979 年獲得諾貝爾文學獎的埃利蒂斯(Odysseus Elytis, 1911∼1996)等,我還無暇顧及呢!

與鄧尼斯.柯連提亞諾斯(Denis Koulentianos, b. 1935)結識,溯自 1985∼86年間,我們同在紐西蘭的詩刊《Rhythm and Rhyme》發表詩,他自動把我的詩譯成希臘文,在 1987 年兩次印成摺頁小書(Chapbook)發行,十年後他又陸續在希臘的文學雜誌《Kytherian Idea》等發表拙作的希臘文譯本。

基於國際詩交流應該雙向溝通的理念,我也把柯連提亞諾斯的詩譯了一輯,發表在《笠》詩刊 195 期(1996.10.15)。到 2009 年他竟然在希臘出版了一冊《柯連提亞諾斯詩集 1》,以我的 16 首漢譯,加上他的希臘文原作和英譯,又找到也是我的朋友俄羅斯詩人隋齊柯甫(Adolf P. Shvedchikov)譯成俄文,共有四種語文的詩集,非常特殊。

由於秀威資訊科技股份有限公司對國際詩交流的重視和熱心支持,我就把柯連提亞諾斯的詩以其詩集《希臘微笑》的英譯為本,再擴大翻譯成為漢譯的增訂版。由這些詩的選譯,充分顯示柯連提亞諾斯的創作,承繼希臘警句詩或哲理詩的傳統,表達作者的理念,文字簡短精幹、要言不煩,當然對意象的經營,就非其著力的部分。

柯連提亞諾斯也頗喜短歌和俳句的寫作,大概是日本這種傳統詩的精簡,正符合他的風格,另一方面也顯示短歌和俳句的風潮,在世界各國仍有不少的愛好者。當國內有些詩人刻意在意象上,弄得過度繁複,以致渾沌不明,甚至因杜撰曖昧的辭句而得意忘形之際,閱讀思慮澄明的另類詩篇,自然別有另一番滋味吧!

2010/03/15

貓的心事(華語)

月未落
我知道貓
夢見什麼心事

貓有時隨我出門
早到公園
卻不隨我回家
一直留在公園

原來在我心中
進進出出
是貓的影子

貓的實體
不與我同在
所以不知道
我夢到什麼心事


#1726

貓的心事(台語)

月未落
我知也貓
夢見什麼心事

貓有時逮我出門
先到公園
無欲逮我轉去
留站公園

原來在我心裡
進進出出
是貓的影

貓的實體
無佮我湊陣
所以無知也
我夢見什麼心事


#1725

與貓邂逅(華語)

每天清晨
到公園遇到黑貓

看看牠勻靜的睡姿
可曾夢見海
海中的魚
可曾夢見山
山間的河

牠有時睜開眼
看看我在牠身旁
甩手運動

以為是一棵文學樹
不耐黑夜
太久


#1724

佮貓相抵(台語)

每日透早
到公園抵著黑貓

看伊恬恬睏的姿勢
不知有夢見海
海中的魚
不知有夢見山
山裡的溪

伊有時睇開目珠
看我在伊身軀邊
晃手運動

想講是一欉文學樹子
忍受勿會住
黑暗暝甚久


#1723

公園內的黑貓(華語)

公園內
一隻黑貓

隨意在花間
散步
安適躺臥在
天地間

天上無心掉下來
一塊漆黑殞石
比夜還要黑

地上的一粒黑玉
路人以為是
一顆無用的石頭


#1722

公園內的黑貓(台語)

公園內
一隻黑貓

隨意在花叢中間
散步
舒舒爽爽倒在
天地間

天頂無意中落落來
一箍黑墨墨的天石
並晚暝復較黑

地面上的一粒黑玉
過路人想講是
一塊無錄用的石頭


#1721

《輪盤》自序

平生第一首詩〈櫻花〉在《野風》54 期(1953.04.16)發表迄今,轉眼間已將近一甲子,進入古稀之齡,時間轉輪加倍快速,以前是追著時間跑,現在好像被時間拖著走,感覺差別很大。

年少輕狂,在詩的園地裡奔馳,情況亦然。當年一股對詩又愛又恨的熱情,促使自己左衝右闖,勇往直前,雖然生活經驗少,對詩的模擬體驗卻毫無畏懼。如此累積下來的奮鬥精神,終能排除萬難,持續至今終不悔。

這些顯得青澀的酸果, 是十八歲以前所寫,早已被自己遺忘在歲月的荒蕪中,從職場退休後,偷閒學少年打電腦,才記起少年留下的走過痕跡,從資料推中一一撿出、入檔,免不了有敝帚自珍的感情,但若要追尋成長過程,看如何走過來時路,明瞭凡事都要忍耐時間考驗,並非一蹴可就,以此做為借鏡,不無ㄧ得之慰吧!

我嘗對青年學子說,以戰後初學非生活語言的我輩,不旋踵都可執筆賦詩,那麼學習條件和機會勝過當時不知凡幾的現代青年,又有何顧忌呢?這些算是反襯教材也好,或說是比較素材也罷,如要反省台灣戰後早期華語教學的成績,可以看做一點剩菜吧!

這些詩除了《野風》、《現代詩》外,發表在《原野》、《松竹文藝》、《綠洲》、《綠穗》、《學生文藝》、《流星》等當時大部分以學生為對象的文藝刊物,知者可能不多了,這也顯示當時學生自辦校際雜誌熱絡之一斑。

從這些少作中顯示我的抒情調,而《工具之歌》組詩已透露我往知性發展的走向,也有〈窗〉這樣頗有結構主義味道的作品。至於〈輪盤〉一詩被選入創世紀詩社最早編輯的《中國新詩選輯》,則開啟後來有幸獲選入諸多詩選的先聲。



2010/03/14

《靈骨塔及其他》增訂版自序

1953 年以前,我在淡水讀小學和初中,過著寧靜的鄉村生活;1953 年以後,我到台北念書,投入繁華的都市,在課業壓力下,度過緊張到幾乎喘不過氣的歲月。1953 年這一年劃分了我生活上兩種截然不同的形態和心情,也創造了兩種不同的生活態度和反應,關鍵在這一年我誤打誤闖在《野風》文藝雜誌發表詩,從此「過著我一生幸福快樂的(詩生活)日子」。
回首來時路,1953 年已經過去將近一甲子,當時年少走著抒情浪漫主義的調子,不旋踵也被鬼魅現代主義感染了,因為自己缺乏那種流行性感冒免疫力,也患上盲目的風疹。1963 年出版第一本詩集時,不但創造了一個最鬼魅的《靈骨塔及其他》書名,還把清純的抒情詩都排除未收,這一耽擱就過了近半世紀,連 2001 年文建會為我出版六冊本《李魁賢詩集》時,都未及蒐羅進去。

此次有機會整理全部資料檔案,把最早期的詩編入《輪盤》詩集,另將《靈骨塔及其他》增訂擴編,莽撞前後的少作也一併容納,保存當時比較完全的原貌,如此一來,從初版的 35 首,竟增加到 96 首之多,可見原先被捨棄了很多。年少往前看,不滿意者多,年老懷舊,事事彌足回味,處理態度便大有差別。

在自己成長過程中,不太喜歡提起《靈骨塔及其他》這個集子,甚至連書名都很少觸及,但重回時光隧道檢視自己的水影,當時的心境卻又點點滴滴浮現。跟偷閒寫作中的《人生拼圖》一樣,詩的每一碎片也是拼圖中的一個補綴,缺之不傷大局,但總是留下麻點般的漏洞。而對有興趣窺視寫作者比較完整成長歷程記錄的人,說不定還看做是被遺棄的古董出土呢!


2010/03/08

A Brief View on Modern Poetry of Taiwan

Preface for both English and Turkish translations of
"Voices from Taiwan—— An anthology of Taiwan Modern Poetry "

At an early stage, the Chinese who crossed the strait to Taiwan were mainly fishermen, traders and some jobless wanderers. They started bringing the land under cultivation for settlement, and became laboring population who were somewhat adventurous in spirit.

In the 1620’s, the Dutch and Spanish were once the occupants of Taiwan for more than thirty years. The Chinese inhabitants had to defense themselves against those foreigners since the protection from the Ming Dynasty had been cut off.

Taiwan was not a land of literature until Zheng Cheng-gung came to Taiwan in 1661. He established the base here against the Ching Court for the recovery of the Ming’s establishment. Some intellectuals who would not surrender to the Ching Court followed him and spread the seeds of Taiwan literature. Among them was Shen Kuang-wen who was regarded as the first scholar of Taiwan. He and other Scholars founded the Tung-Yin Poetry Association.

In 1683 Zheng’s regime was overthrown and Taiwan was incorporated into the Ching Empire. More Chinese immigrated into Taiwan, and the activities of the people against the Ching continued. Among them, the rebellion of Lin Shuang-wen in 1787~88 was the most famous. After more than one hundred years, stability of live and boom of literature brought up many a man of letters, whom were all engaged in creating traditional poetry and essays. This situation continued even after the end of the Sino-Japanese War in 1895, when Taiwan became a colony of Japan.

As the inhabitants were not in favor of Taiwan being cut down, they declared independence and formed the Republic of Taiwan. But these efforts were in vain. After the Japanese colonization, though anti-Japanese movement still occurred here and there, the suppression was on such a large scale that thousands of people were convicted and put to death, as in the case of Yu Ching-fang in 1915. The intellectuals were aware that they were not powerful enough to confront the rulers, and they turned to cultural movement. They inspired people with new culture and advocated new literature.

The new cultural movement in Taiwan was started in 1920 by a host of Taiwanese students in Tokyo, Japan. They published a newspaper called Taiwan Youth to introduce new thought, liberty and self-determination, fashionable since the end of World War I. A purpose of the movement was the development of culture by means of literature.

In 1921 Taiwan Cultural Association led by Chiang Wei-shui and Lin Hsien-tang was founded. They lectured on culture issues all over the island of Taiwan to enlighten people with new knowledge. In the following year, they made the Taiwan Youth as their organ newspaper and changed it into a magazine named Taiwan. In this magazine, Huang Chéng-chung and Huang Cháo-chin reported the state of the movement of the Chinese colloquial style in mainland China. They elicited a great public response and stimulated the Taiwan Minpao, a newspaper started in 1923, to adopt colloquial Chinese as its language. This newspaper became the cradle of new literature of Taiwan.

The young generation of Taiwan could read literary works of every country in the world through Japanese translation. When the Taiwan Minpao was started, the works of Chinese authors, such as Lu Shun, Kuo Mo-jo, Hu Shih and others, were reprinted, and the theories of literary revolution of China were introduced by the students who had studied or were studying in China. Among those students, Chang Wo-chun was the most prominent. In this paper, a controversy with the older generation of letters began.

In the Taiwan magazine issued on April 10, 1924, Hsieh Chun-mu, under pen name of Tsuei Feng, published his “Poetical Imitation”, a set of four modern Japanese poems with the themes of resistance, critique, love and beauty, respectively, which became the models of modern Taiwanese poetry. In 1925, Chang Wo-chun published the first collection of modern Taiwanese poems entitled Love in the Capital of Chaos.

At that time, a lot of people still wrote traditional Chinese poems. They had poetical activities, but most of them were social gatherings while literary youths devoted themselves to the new literary movement of self-consciousness.

In 1923 literary periodicals come out one after another, including Nan-yin, Formosa, Pioneer, Taiwan Literature, New Literature of Taiwan and Literary Taiwan etc.

The Taiwan League of Literature was founded in May 6, 1934. It was of the whole Taiwan island organization. The activities of the literary movement flourished.

The Taiwan Association of Poets was set up in 1939. The Ila Formosa was its organ magazine. But it was issued only once. The name of this association was later altered to Taiwan Association of Literature.

After the World War II, Taiwan was taken over by Nationalist China. The official language was changed from Japanese to Mandarin. The literary men who had been accustomed to writing in Japanese had difficulties using Chinese. Besides, postwar China had her internal disturbance. And on Taiwan an incident broke out on February 28, 1947. Some men of letters were exiled, missing or arrested among with the Taiwanese people massacred by Chinese military. The activities of literature showed down suddenly. But the new generation was growing up.

In poetry, for example, the magazine Hsin-hsin came out in 1945. In March 1946, there was a literary column appeared in the Chung-hua Daily News. In August 1947, a literary supplement Bridge was published in the Hsin-sheng News. And in 1948, there was the Tide, whose previous name was the Fuchigusa, originally published by an association called the Silver Bell in 1943. These periodicals were almost ceased to exit by 1947.

At that time, the mainland China was occupied by the Chinese Communists. Though quite a few men of letters followed the government to Taiwan, the confused situation resulted a vacuum state in literature.

It was not until November 1951, when the New Poems, a weekly in the Independence Evening News, was published that there was the first step in the rebirth after the war.

The Association of Modern Poetry was formed in February 1953. And the Blue Stars Poetical Association was established in March of the following year. They published the Blue Stars weekly in the Kung-lun News. In October 1959, the Epoch Poetical Association was organized, and issued their magazine called the Epoch. Owing to the increase in publication, there appeared lots of poets.

Viewing from the history of the movement of new poetry, the year 1956 formed the watershed. In this year, Chi Hsien proclaimed that he had formed the Association of Modern Poetry. His slogan was “To lead the second revolution of new poetry, to push the modernization of new poetry”. He also suggested the six beliefs of the Association of Modern Poetry, which included “We are the group which owe the spirit and elements of modern time. We have to cast or to develop what they are of the new schools after Charles Baudelaire”, “We regard that new poetry should be transplanted laterally, not inherited longitudinally” and the “Stress of intelligence”. These became the targets of critique later on. At its climax the number of its members was 102. Its magazine Modern Poetry was ceased to exist in February 1964. There were 45 issues published in all. In June 1982 the Modern Poetry was once republished for a short period.

In parallel with the formation of the Association of Modern Poetry, the Association of the Blue Stars published their Selected Poems of Blue Stars in 1957. In this anthology, Chin Tzu-hao challenged the Association of Modern Poetry and criticized the theories of modern poetry. He pointed out that “The signification of poetry is to observe the phenomena of life. It is to express the new state of life”. He also said, “Poetry is not a refuge of life”. He stressed that poetry must have the elements of thought and art. The Association of the Blue Stars has edited off and on from the Poetical Pages of the Blue Stars, the Blue Stars Quarterly and the Blue Stars Yearbook up to Poetical Blue Stars.

Though the Association of the Epoch accepted its direction, on the contrary, the Blue Stars had changed its direction matched with that proposed by the Epoch, the standpoint of the nationalist. The members of the Epoch learned further about the techniques of the surrealism. But their theories or works were not so complete. After the establishment of the Li, which means Bamboo Hat, the surrealism was attacked. Besides this, the emergence of the new generation of poets made the route revised one by one.

Though there were differences among these three associations of poetry, the obscurity of the political target and the environments of Taiwan made the new immigrant from China after World War II had the feeling that they would go back to China very soon. They thought that they were the guests on Taiwan, so that the poets from China expressed this kind of mood. Their tones were mainly of homesickness, and their sentiments were of longing for the classical tradition. They pursued inner thought and composed delicate poetical lines. They praise Platonic love and had illusions about abstract glory and power. They did so that they would get some degree of consolation. This state continued until their second generation who like Taiwanese poets observe the reality and criticize the existing state of social affairs.

After 1945, the Taiwanese poets gave up to learn Japanese and instead began to write in Chinese, and young people born after the war have mastered Chinese with ease. These two generations get together and formed the Li(Bamboo Hat)Poetical Society in march 1964. In June of same year they issued a bimonthly called Li. It has never interrupted for more than forty years. In forty years Li become the biggest poetical association in Taiwan with more than eighty members including five different generations.

A bamboo hat is rich in typical symbol in Taiwan being worn by the farmer to keep away sun heat when he is working in the field. The poets under the Bamboo Hat are the heirs of the tradition of social reality. On the other hand, in order to correct the nihilist tendency, it has stressed all the way since the first issue that it must fit firmly with reality, social sense, time spirit and innovation. Therefore, the Bamboo Hat is oriented to combine life, local color, society and art. And the weight of the theme is put on how to change the social reality into the poetical reality.

The Li Poetry Society makes much of positive critique. Besides criticizing the society with poems, it has its weight on the criticism of the poetical works, especially the matters of connecting a novel relationship among things, frame of thought, structure of language and poetical techniques.

The members of the Li are mainly the native born Taiwanese. They inherit the spirit of resistance cultivated under different rulers. On the other hand, it has involved itself with strong social concerns, its conscience of resistance is also strong in expression through the means of art. Though it is organized under the spirit of realism, its members have managed to maintain their own styles.

Of course, there are lots of poets who do not belong to the poetical association mentioned above. They may organize another poetical association, or they don’t participate in any poetical association. Though their poetical moods are different, most of them choose the standpoint of reality to express themselves.



Translated by Dr. Hsu Wen-hsiung
Revised by the author on 2010.03.07


2010/03/07

《與時間獨處》編譯序

與裴瑞拉結識十餘年,我喜歡她的詩簡短精練,韻味十足,忍不住翻譯介紹給我國讀者。相對地,她對我的詩也頗為囑意,率先把我的詩譯成葡萄牙文,印成一本小詩集《愛還是不愛》(Ama-me ou não, 1999),又把我翻譯她的詩印成《裴瑞拉詩選》(Teresinka Pereira, Selected Poems, 2000),二者都由她主持的國際作家藝術家協會(International Writers and Artists Association)印行。

與裴瑞拉交往愈密切後,瞭解她愈多。她遠在巴西故國的年輕時期,就熱心參與文學、社會、政治運動,到美國長住後,更積極投入公共事務,成立協會,關懷勞工、女性,原住民等弱勢族群,也注意環境及動物保護議題。然而在如此忙錄當中,她對國際詩壇生態仍然付出最多心血,透過協會聯繫全球會員,提供大家關心的消息,對當權者的倒行逆施,特別是違反人權的舉動,提出強烈指責。

我不時讀到她發出來的電郵,獲悉許多國際詩人的最新動態,也常常得以閱讀到她的新作,有的詩是她對國際局勢最新引人矚目事件的批判,有的是她內心感情的強烈反應和表露,都非常強悍,震動心弦,毫不隱晦或扭捏作態,她的個性真實表現在她的詩創作上。她對詩藝的概念是,詩寫得盡量簡短,以節省朋友閱讀的時間。這雖然是以現代時間經濟觀為著眼點,其實正是詩語精練的最根本要素。

2005年策劃高雄詩歌節時,我邀請她參加,她一方面未克分身,另方面說經濟拮据,無法支付遠程旅行費用,深感不能出席為憾,但仍熱心把詩歌節消息發布給協會會員周知。這消息促使俄羅斯詩人隋齊柯甫有意來台參加,惜時間關係,沒能實現,卻讓隋齊柯甫有緣接觸到台灣詩,而自動把他喜愛的詩篇譯成俄羅斯文的契機,這可能是台灣詩人作品進入俄羅斯文本的產聲吧!

2010年利用新年假期把裴瑞拉的詩加以搜羅翻譯,共選譯了140首,這些詩明顯包含內向性和外向性兩個面向。內向性的詩充分表現女性的感情世界,坦然揭露她的憧憬、夢想、慾望、失落;外向性的詩則懷抱大我的愛,關心被欺壓的弱者和受難者,對蠻橫強權的抗議和譴責。不同面向的詩作,讀來都痛快淋漓。書中不強加分類,因為詩人心境不是可以截然劃分,或內向性思惟,或外向性投射,起起落落才符合自然常態。但為便於查索,姑以英文原作詩題的字母排序,也方便作者自己索驥。

書名《與時間獨處》(Alone with the Time)是裴瑞拉特別為我的譯本命名,可以體會她堅守孤獨的心靈,在時間的長流中保持冷靜觀察的情境,可以擺脫無謂的糾葛,又能維持隨時介入和抽離的彈性,這正是我個人採取的態度,和保持修身養性的立場,與我心有戚戚焉!