希臘是西方文明的發源地，希臘吟遊詩人荷馬的史詩，成為西方文學的傳統，可是警句詩也是希臘的另一個傳統，大概是衍自希臘文明的愛智性格，重理性思辨，輕感性抒情吧！一部《希臘詩選》（800 BC∼1000 AD），包括 3,700首警句詩、歌謠、墓誌銘等，在 1,800 年間一脈相傳。
現代希臘詩人出了不少縱橫國際詩壇的名家，在我編譯的《歐洲經典詩選》25 冊當中，網羅了卡瓦菲（Constantine Cavafy, 1863∼1933）、塞弗里斯（George Seferis, 1900~1971）和黎佐斯（Yannis Ritsos, 1909∼1990）。還有例如 1979 年獲得諾貝爾文學獎的埃利蒂斯（Odysseus Elytis, 1911∼1996）等，我還無暇顧及呢！
與鄧尼斯．柯連提亞諾斯（Denis Koulentianos, b. 1935）結識，溯自 1985∼86年間，我們同在紐西蘭的詩刊《Rhythm and Rhyme》發表詩，他自動把我的詩譯成希臘文，在 1987 年兩次印成摺頁小書（Chapbook）發行，十年後他又陸續在希臘的文學雜誌《Kytherian Idea》等發表拙作的希臘文譯本。
基於國際詩交流應該雙向溝通的理念，我也把柯連提亞諾斯的詩譯了一輯，發表在《笠》詩刊 195 期（1996.10.15）。到 2009 年他竟然在希臘出版了一冊《柯連提亞諾斯詩集 1》，以我的 16 首漢譯，加上他的希臘文原作和英譯，又找到也是我的朋友俄羅斯詩人隋齊柯甫（Adolf P. Shvedchikov）譯成俄文，共有四種語文的詩集，非常特殊。
1953 年以前，我在淡水讀小學和初中，過著寧靜的鄉村生活；1953 年以後，我到台北念書，投入繁華的都市，在課業壓力下，度過緊張到幾乎喘不過氣的歲月。1953 年這一年劃分了我生活上兩種截然不同的形態和心情，也創造了兩種不同的生活態度和反應，關鍵在這一年我誤打誤闖在《野風》文藝雜誌發表詩，從此「過著我一生幸福快樂的（詩生活）日子」。
回首來時路，1953 年已經過去將近一甲子，當時年少走著抒情浪漫主義的調子，不旋踵也被鬼魅現代主義感染了，因為自己缺乏那種流行性感冒免疫力，也患上盲目的風疹。1963 年出版第一本詩集時，不但創造了一個最鬼魅的《靈骨塔及其他》書名，還把清純的抒情詩都排除未收，這一耽擱就過了近半世紀，連 2001 年文建會為我出版六冊本《李魁賢詩集》時，都未及蒐羅進去。
此次有機會整理全部資料檔案，把最早期的詩編入《輪盤》詩集，另將《靈骨塔及其他》增訂擴編，莽撞前後的少作也一併容納，保存當時比較完全的原貌，如此一來，從初版的 35 首，竟增加到 96 首之多，可見原先被捨棄了很多。年少往前看，不滿意者多，年老懷舊，事事彌足回味，處理態度便大有差別。
At an early stage, the Chinese who crossed the strait to Taiwan were mainly fishermen, traders and some jobless wanderers. They started bringing the land under cultivation for settlement, and became laboring population who were somewhat adventurous in spirit.
In the 1620’s, the Dutch and Spanish were once the occupants of Taiwan for more than thirty years. The Chinese inhabitants had to defense themselves against those foreigners since the protection from the Ming Dynasty had been cut off.
Taiwan was not a land of literature until Zheng Cheng-gung came to Taiwan in 1661. He established the base here against the Ching Court for the recovery of the Ming’s establishment. Some intellectuals who would not surrender to the Ching Court followed him and spread the seeds of Taiwan literature. Among them was Shen Kuang-wen who was regarded as the first scholar of Taiwan. He and other Scholars founded the Tung-Yin Poetry Association.
In 1683 Zheng’s regime was overthrown and Taiwan was incorporated into the Ching Empire. More Chinese immigrated into Taiwan, and the activities of the people against the Ching continued. Among them, the rebellion of Lin Shuang-wen in 1787~88 was the most famous. After more than one hundred years, stability of live and boom of literature brought up many a man of letters, whom were all engaged in creating traditional poetry and essays. This situation continued even after the end of the Sino-Japanese War in 1895, when Taiwan became a colony of Japan.
As the inhabitants were not in favor of Taiwan being cut down, they declared independence and formed the Republic of Taiwan. But these efforts were in vain. After the Japanese colonization, though anti-Japanese movement still occurred here and there, the suppression was on such a large scale that thousands of people were convicted and put to death, as in the case of Yu Ching-fang in 1915. The intellectuals were aware that they were not powerful enough to confront the rulers, and they turned to cultural movement. They inspired people with new culture and advocated new literature.
The new cultural movement in Taiwan was started in 1920 by a host of Taiwanese students in Tokyo, Japan. They published a newspaper called Taiwan Youth to introduce new thought, liberty and self-determination, fashionable since the end of World War I. A purpose of the movement was the development of culture by means of literature.
In 1921 Taiwan Cultural Association led by Chiang Wei-shui and Lin Hsien-tang was founded. They lectured on culture issues all over the island of Taiwan to enlighten people with new knowledge. In the following year, they made the Taiwan Youth as their organ newspaper and changed it into a magazine named Taiwan. In this magazine, Huang Chéng-chung and Huang Cháo-chin reported the state of the movement of the Chinese colloquial style in mainland China. They elicited a great public response and stimulated the Taiwan Minpao, a newspaper started in 1923, to adopt colloquial Chinese as its language. This newspaper became the cradle of new literature of Taiwan.
The young generation of Taiwan could read literary works of every country in the world through Japanese translation. When the Taiwan Minpao was started, the works of Chinese authors, such as Lu Shun, Kuo Mo-jo, Hu Shih and others, were reprinted, and the theories of literary revolution of China were introduced by the students who had studied or were studying in China. Among those students, Chang Wo-chun was the most prominent. In this paper, a controversy with the older generation of letters began.
In the Taiwan magazine issued on April 10, 1924, Hsieh Chun-mu, under pen name of Tsuei Feng, published his “Poetical Imitation”, a set of four modern Japanese poems with the themes of resistance, critique, love and beauty, respectively, which became the models of modern Taiwanese poetry. In 1925, Chang Wo-chun published the first collection of modern Taiwanese poems entitled Love in the Capital of Chaos.
At that time, a lot of people still wrote traditional Chinese poems. They had poetical activities, but most of them were social gatherings while literary youths devoted themselves to the new literary movement of self-consciousness.
In 1923 literary periodicals come out one after another, including Nan-yin, Formosa, Pioneer, Taiwan Literature, New Literature of Taiwan and Literary Taiwan etc.
The Taiwan League of Literature was founded in May 6, 1934. It was of the whole Taiwan island organization. The activities of the literary movement flourished.
The Taiwan Association of Poets was set up in 1939. The Ila Formosa was its organ magazine. But it was issued only once. The name of this association was later altered to Taiwan Association of Literature.
After the World War II, Taiwan was taken over by Nationalist China. The official language was changed from Japanese to Mandarin. The literary men who had been accustomed to writing in Japanese had difficulties using Chinese. Besides, postwar China had her internal disturbance. And on Taiwan an incident broke out on February 28, 1947. Some men of letters were exiled, missing or arrested among with the Taiwanese people massacred by Chinese military. The activities of literature showed down suddenly. But the new generation was growing up.
In poetry, for example, the magazine Hsin-hsin came out in 1945. In March 1946, there was a literary column appeared in the Chung-hua Daily News. In August 1947, a literary supplement Bridge was published in the Hsin-sheng News. And in 1948, there was the Tide, whose previous name was the Fuchigusa, originally published by an association called the Silver Bell in 1943. These periodicals were almost ceased to exit by 1947.
At that time, the mainland China was occupied by the Chinese Communists. Though quite a few men of letters followed the government to Taiwan, the confused situation resulted a vacuum state in literature.
It was not until November 1951, when the New Poems, a weekly in the Independence Evening News, was published that there was the first step in the rebirth after the war.
The Association of Modern Poetry was formed in February 1953. And the Blue Stars Poetical Association was established in March of the following year. They published the Blue Stars weekly in the Kung-lun News. In October 1959, the Epoch Poetical Association was organized, and issued their magazine called the Epoch. Owing to the increase in publication, there appeared lots of poets.
Viewing from the history of the movement of new poetry, the year 1956 formed the watershed. In this year, Chi Hsien proclaimed that he had formed the Association of Modern Poetry. His slogan was “To lead the second revolution of new poetry, to push the modernization of new poetry”. He also suggested the six beliefs of the Association of Modern Poetry, which included “We are the group which owe the spirit and elements of modern time. We have to cast or to develop what they are of the new schools after Charles Baudelaire”, “We regard that new poetry should be transplanted laterally, not inherited longitudinally” and the “Stress of intelligence”. These became the targets of critique later on. At its climax the number of its members was 102. Its magazine Modern Poetry was ceased to exist in February 1964. There were 45 issues published in all. In June 1982 the Modern Poetry was once republished for a short period.
In parallel with the formation of the Association of Modern Poetry, the Association of the Blue Stars published their Selected Poems of Blue Stars in 1957. In this anthology, Chin Tzu-hao challenged the Association of Modern Poetry and criticized the theories of modern poetry. He pointed out that “The signification of poetry is to observe the phenomena of life. It is to express the new state of life”. He also said, “Poetry is not a refuge of life”. He stressed that poetry must have the elements of thought and art. The Association of the Blue Stars has edited off and on from the Poetical Pages of the Blue Stars, the Blue Stars Quarterly and the Blue Stars Yearbook up to Poetical Blue Stars.
Though the Association of the Epoch accepted its direction, on the contrary, the Blue Stars had changed its direction matched with that proposed by the Epoch, the standpoint of the nationalist. The members of the Epoch learned further about the techniques of the surrealism. But their theories or works were not so complete. After the establishment of the Li, which means Bamboo Hat, the surrealism was attacked. Besides this, the emergence of the new generation of poets made the route revised one by one.
Though there were differences among these three associations of poetry, the obscurity of the political target and the environments of Taiwan made the new immigrant from China after World War II had the feeling that they would go back to China very soon. They thought that they were the guests on Taiwan, so that the poets from China expressed this kind of mood. Their tones were mainly of homesickness, and their sentiments were of longing for the classical tradition. They pursued inner thought and composed delicate poetical lines. They praise Platonic love and had illusions about abstract glory and power. They did so that they would get some degree of consolation. This state continued until their second generation who like Taiwanese poets observe the reality and criticize the existing state of social affairs.
After 1945, the Taiwanese poets gave up to learn Japanese and instead began to write in Chinese, and young people born after the war have mastered Chinese with ease. These two generations get together and formed the Li（Bamboo Hat）Poetical Society in march 1964. In June of same year they issued a bimonthly called Li. It has never interrupted for more than forty years. In forty years Li become the biggest poetical association in Taiwan with more than eighty members including five different generations.
A bamboo hat is rich in typical symbol in Taiwan being worn by the farmer to keep away sun heat when he is working in the field. The poets under the Bamboo Hat are the heirs of the tradition of social reality. On the other hand, in order to correct the nihilist tendency, it has stressed all the way since the first issue that it must fit firmly with reality, social sense, time spirit and innovation. Therefore, the Bamboo Hat is oriented to combine life, local color, society and art. And the weight of the theme is put on how to change the social reality into the poetical reality.
The Li Poetry Society makes much of positive critique. Besides criticizing the society with poems, it has its weight on the criticism of the poetical works, especially the matters of connecting a novel relationship among things, frame of thought, structure of language and poetical techniques.
The members of the Li are mainly the native born Taiwanese. They inherit the spirit of resistance cultivated under different rulers. On the other hand, it has involved itself with strong social concerns, its conscience of resistance is also strong in expression through the means of art. Though it is organized under the spirit of realism, its members have managed to maintain their own styles.
Of course, there are lots of poets who do not belong to the poetical association mentioned above. They may organize another poetical association, or they don’t participate in any poetical association. Though their poetical moods are different, most of them choose the standpoint of reality to express themselves.
Translated by Dr. Hsu Wen-hsiung
Revised by the author on 2010.03.07
與裴瑞拉結識十餘年，我喜歡她的詩簡短精練，韻味十足，忍不住翻譯介紹給我國讀者。相對地，她對我的詩也頗為囑意，率先把我的詩譯成葡萄牙文，印成一本小詩集《愛還是不愛》（Ama-me ou não, 1999），又把我翻譯她的詩印成《裴瑞拉詩選》（Teresinka Pereira, Selected Poems, 2000），二者都由她主持的國際作家藝術家協會（International Writers and Artists Association）印行。
書名《與時間獨處》（Alone with the Time）是裴瑞拉特別為我的譯本命名，可以體會她堅守孤獨的心靈，在時間的長流中保持冷靜觀察的情境，可以擺脫無謂的糾葛，又能維持隨時介入和抽離的彈性，這正是我個人採取的態度，和保持修身養性的立場，與我心有戚戚焉！
書名《與時間獨處》（Alone with the Time）是裴瑞拉特別為我的譯本命名，可以體會她堅守孤獨的心靈，在時間的長流中保持冷靜觀察的情境，可以擺脫無謂的糾葛，又能維持隨時介入和抽離的彈性，這正是我個人採取的態度，和保持修身養性的立場，與我心有戚戚焉！